The German Nutrition Society (DGE) recommends that people who maintain a purely plant-based vegan diet supplement with vitamin B12 permanently. The form of vitamin B12 that is available to the human body is almost only available in animal products, and therefore a vitamin B12 supplement is the only way to avoid deficiency. The DGE also states that other vitamins and minerals, including riboflavin, vitamin D, calcium, iron, iodine, zinc, and selenium may be lacking in a vegan diet and should be monitored. The DGE does not recommend a vegan diet for pregnant or breastfeeding women, infants, children, or adolescents.
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