Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA)
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Su KP, Shen WW, Huang SY. Are omega3 fatty acids beneficial in depression but not mania? Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000;57:716-7. View abstract.
Mori TA, Burke V, Puddey IB, et al. Purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have differential effects on serum lipids and lipoproteins, LDL particle size, glucose, and insulin in mildly hyperlipidemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1085-94. View abstract.
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Zuijdgeest-Van Leeuwen SD, Dagnelie PC, Wattimena JL, et al. Eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester supplementation: in cachectic cancer patients and healthy subjects: effects on lipolysis and lipid oxidation. Clin Nutr 2000;19:417-23. View abstract.
Thies F, Nebe-von-Caron G, Powell JR, et al. Dietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid, but not with other long-chain n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, decreases natural killer cell activity in healthy subjects aged >55 y. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:539-48. View abstract.
Emsley R, Myburgh C, Oosthuizen P, van Rensburg SJ. Randomized, placebo-controlled study of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid as supplemental treatment in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 2002;159:1596-8. View abstract.
Terano T, Hirai A, Hamazaki T, et al. Effect of oral administration of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid on platelet function, blood viscosity and red cell deformability in healthy human subjects. Atherosclerosis 1983;46:321-31.. View abstract.
Kris-Ehterton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ, et al. Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2002;106:2747-57. View abstract.
Peet M, Horrobin DF. A dose-ranging study of the effects of ethyl-eicosapentaenoate in patients with ongoing depression despite apparently adequate treatment with standard drugs. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2002;59:913-9.. View abstract.
Woodman RJ, Mori TA, Burke V, et al. Effects of purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on glycemic control, blood pressure, and serum lipids in type 2 diabetic patients with treated hypertension. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:1007-15.. View abstract.
Erkkila AT, Lehto S, Pyorala K, Uusitupa MI. n-3 Fatty acids and 5-y risks of death and cardiovascular disease events in patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78:65-71.. View abstract.
Finnegan YE, Howarth D, Minihane AM, et al. Plant and marine derived (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids do not affect blood coagulation and fibrinolytic factors in moderately hyperlipidemic humans. J Nutr 2003;133:2210-3.. View abstract.
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Fenton WS, Dickerson F, Boronow J, et al. A placebo-controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acid (ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid) supplementation for residual symptoms and cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 2001;158:2071-4. View abstract.
Zanarini MC, Frankenburg FR. Omega-3 Fatty acid treatment of women with borderline personality disorder: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Am J Psychiatry 2003;160:167-9.. View abstract.
Nemets B, Stahl Z, Belmaker RH. Addition of omega-3 fatty acid to maintenance medication treatment for recurrent unipolar depressive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2002;159:477-9.. View abstract.
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Yao JK, Magan S, Sonel AF, et al. Effects of omega-3 fatty acid on platelet serotonin responsivity in patients with schizophrenia. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2004;71:171-6. View abstract.
Dokholyan RS, Albert CM, Appel LJ, et al. A trial of omega-3 fatty acids for prevention of hypertension. Am J Cardiol 2004;93:1041-3. View abstract.
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Yokoyama M, Origasa H, Matsuzaki M, et al. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on major coronary events in hypercholesterolaemic patients (JELIS): a randomised open-label, blinded endpoint analysis. Lancet 2007;369:1090-8. View abstract.
Lucas M, Asselin G, Merette C, et al. Effects of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on hot flashes and quality of life among middle-aged women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Menopause 2009;16:357-66. View abstract.
Sanders, T. A. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food chain in Europe. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(1 Suppl):176S-178S. View abstract.
Kris-Etherton, P. M., Taylor, D. S., Yu-Poth, S., Huth, P., Moriarty, K., Fishell, V., Hargrove, R. L., Zhao, G., and Etherton, T. D. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food chain in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(1 Suppl):179S-188S. View abstract.
Simopoulos, A. P. Human requirement for N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Poult.Sci 2000;79(7):961-970. View abstract.
Bahadori, B., Uitz, E., Thonhofer, R., Trummer, M., Pestemer-Lach, I., McCarty, M., and Krejs, G. J. omega-3 Fatty acids infusions as adjuvant therapy in rheumatoid arthritis. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr 2010;34(2):151-155. View abstract.
Sarris, J., Mischoulon, D., and Schweitzer, I. Omega-3 for bipolar disorder: meta-analyses of use in mania and bipolar depression. J.Clin.Psychiatry 2012;73(1):81-86. View abstract.
Sublette, M. E., Ellis, S. P., Geant, A. L., and Mann, J. J. Meta-analysis of the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in clinical trials in depression. J.Clin.Psychiatry 2011;72(12):1577-1584. View abstract.
Katz, D. P., Manner, T., Furst, P., and Askanazi, J. The use of an intravenous fish oil emulsion enriched with omega-3 fatty acids in patients with cystic fibrosis. Nutrition 1996;12(5):334-339. View abstract.
Danno, K. and Sugie, N. Combination therapy with low-dose etretinate and eicosapentaenoic acid for psoriasis vulgaris. J Dermatol. 1998;25(11):703-705. View abstract.
Burkhart CS, Dell-Kuster S, Siegemund M, Pargger H, Marsch S, Strebel SP, Steiner LA.Effect of n-3 fatty acids on markers of brain injury and incidence of sepsis-associated delirium in septic patients. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2014;58(6):689-700. View abstract.
Safarinejad MR, Shafiei N, Safarinejad S. Effects of EPA, ?-linolenic acid or coenzyme Q10 on serum prostate-specific antigen levels: a randomised, double-blind trial. Br J Nutr. 2013;110(1):164-71. View abstract.
Fu YQ, Zheng JS, Yang B, Li D. Effect of individual omega-3 fatty acids on the risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. J Epidemiol. 2015;25(4):261-74. View abstract.
Grosso G, Pajak A, Marventano S, Castellano S, Galvano F, Bucolo C, Drago F, Caraci F. Role of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of depressive disorders: a comprehensive meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. PLoS One. 2014 May 7;9(5):e96905. View abstract.
Mischoulon D, Nierenberg AA, Schettler PJ, Kinkead BL, Fehling K, Martinson MA, Hyman Rapaport M. A double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial comparing eicosapentaenoic acid versus docosahexaenoic acid for depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 2015 Jan;76(1):54-61. View abstract.
Phang M, Lincz LF, Garg ML. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid supplementations reduce platelet aggregation and hemostatic markers differentially in men and women. J Nutr. 2013 Apr;143(4):457-63. View abstract.
Su KP, Lai HC, Yang HT, Su WP, Peng CY, Chang JP, Chang HC, Pariante CM. Omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of interferon-alpha-induced depression: results from a randomized, controlled trial. Biol Psychiatry. 2014 Oct 1;76(7):559-66. View abstract.
Ballantyne CM, Bays HE, Kastelein JJ, Stein E, Isaacsohn JL, Braeckman RA, Soni PN. Efficacy and safety of eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (AMR101) therapy in statin-treated patients with persistent high triglycerides (from the ANCHOR study). Am J Cardiol. 2012 Oct 1;110(7):984-92. View abstract.
Bays HE, Ballantyne CM, Kastelein JJ, Isaacsohn JL, Braeckman RA, Soni PN. Eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (AMR101) therapy in patients with very high triglyceride levels (from the Multi-center, plAcebo-controlled, Randomized, double-blINd, 12-week study with an open-label Extension [MARINE] trial). Am J Cardiol. 2011 Sep 1;108(5):682-90. View abstract.
Doi M, Nosaka K, Miyoshi T, Iwamoto M, Kajiya M, Okawa K, Nakayama R, Takagi W, Takeda K, Hirohata S, Ito H. Early eicosapentaenoic acid treatment after percutaneous coronary intervention reduces acute inflammatory responses and ventricular arrhythmias in patients with acute myocardial infarction: a randomized, controlled study. Int J Cardiol. 2014 Oct 20;176(3):577-82. View abstract.
Kurita A, Takashima H, Ando H, Kumagai S, Waseda K, Gosho M, Amano T. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on peri-procedural (type IVa) myocardial infarction following elective coronary stenting. J Cardiol. 2015 Aug;66(2):114-9. View abstract.
Sánchez-Lara K, Turcott JG, Juárez-Hernández E, Nuñez-Valencia C, Villanueva G, Guevara P, De la Torre-Vallejo M, Mohar A, Arrieta O. Effects of an oral nutritional supplement containing eicosapentaenoic acid on nutritional and clinical outcomes in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: randomised trial. Clin Nutr. 2014 Dec;33(6):1017-23. View abstract.
Kuhnt K, Weiß S, Kiehntopf M, Jahreis G. Consumption of echium oil increases EPA and DPA in blood fractions more efficiently compared to linseed oil in humans. Lipids Health Dis. 2016 Feb 18;15:32. View abstract.
Kuhnt K, Fuhrmann C, Köhler M, Kiehntopf M, Jahreis G. Dietary echium oil increases long-chain n-3 PUFAs, including docosapentaenoic acid, in blood fractions and alters biochemical markers for cardiovascular disease independently of age, sex, and metabolic syndrome. J Nutr. 2014 Apr;144(4):447-60. View abstract.
Cawood AL, Ding R, Napper FL, et al. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from highly concentrated n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters is incorporated into advanced atherosclerotic plaques and higher plaque EPA is associated with decreased plaque inflammation and increased stability. Atherosclerosis. 2010;212(1):252-9. View abstract.
Braeckman RA, Stirtan WG, Soni PN. Pharmacokinetics of Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Plasma and Red Blood Cells After Multiple Oral Dosing With Icosapent Ethyl in Healthy Subjects. Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev. 2014 Mar;3(2):101-108. View abstract.
Bhatt DL, Steg PG, Miller M, et al; REDUCE-IT Investigators. Cardiovascular Risk Reduction with Icosapent Ethyl for Hypertriglyceridemia. N Engl J Med. 2018 Nov 10. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1812792. [Epub ahead of print] View abstract.
FDA announces qualified health claims for omega-3 fatty acids. Available at: Accessed April 15 2019.
Watanabe T, Ando K, Daidoji H, Otaki Y, Sugawara S, Matsui M, et al; CHERRY study investigators. A randomized controlled trial of eicosapentaenoic acid in patients with coronary heart disease on statins. J Cardiol. 2017;70(6):537-544. doi: 10.1016/j.jjcc.2017.07.007. View abstract.
Nosaka K, Miyoshi T, Iwamoto M, Kajiya M, Okawa K, Tsukuda S,et al. Early initiation of eicosapentaenoic acid and statin treatment is associated with better clinical outcomes than statin alone in patients with acute coronary syndromes: 1-year outcomes of a randomized controlled study. Int J Cardiol. 2017;228:173-179. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.11.105. View abstract.
Hosogoe N, Ishikawa S, Yokoyama N, Kozuma K, Isshiki T. Add-on Antiplatelet Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid With Tailored Dose Setting in Patients on Dual Antiplatelet Therapy. Int Heart J. 2017;58(4):481-485. doi: 10.1536/ihj.16-430. View abstract.
Scaioli E, Sartini A, Bellanova M, Campieri M, Festi D, Bazzoli F, et al. Eicosapentaenoic acid reduces fecal levels of calprotectin and prevents relapse in patients with ulcerative colitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018: S1542-3565(18)30106-X. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2018.01.036. View abstract.
Healy LA, Ryan A, Doyle SL, Ní Bhuachalla ÉB, Cushen S, Segurado R, et al. Does prolonged enteral feeding with supplemental omega-3 fatty acids impact on Recovery post-esophagectomy: results of a randomized double-blind trial. Ann Surg. 2017;266(5):720-728. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000002390. View abstract.
Tsuchiya Y, Yanagimoto K, Nakazato K, Hayamizu K, Ochi E. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids-rich fish oil supplementation attenuates strength loss and limited joint range of motion after eccentric contractions: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2016;116(6):1179-88. View abstract.
Solís-Martínez O, Plasa-Carvalho V, Phillips-Sixtos G, et al. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid on body composition and inflammation markers in patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer from a public hospital in Mexico. Nutr Cancer. 2018;70(4):663-670. View abstract.
Brinton EA, Ballantyne CM, Guyton JR, et al. Lipid effects of icosapent ethyl in women with diabetes mellitus and persistent high triglycerides on statin treatment: ANCHOR Trial Subanalysis. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2018;27(9):1170-1176. View abstract.
Su KP, Yang HT, Chang JP, Shih YH, et al. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have different effects on peripheral phospholipase A2 gene expressions in acute depressed patients. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2018;80(Pt C):227-233. View abstract.
Prescribing information: Vascepa (icosapent ethyl). Amarin Pharma, Inc. Bridgewater, NJ, USA. Revised 12/2019. Available at: [Accessed 12/16/2019].
Guo XF, Li KL, Li JM, Li D. Effects of EPA and DHA on blood pressure and inflammatory factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2019;59(20):3380-3393. View abstract.
Liao Y, Xie B, Zhang H, et al. Efficacy of omega-3 PUFAs in depression: A meta-analysis. Transl Psychiatry. 2019 Aug 5;9(1):190. View abstract.
Hull MA, Sprange K, Hepburn T, et al. Eicosapentaenoic acid and aspirin, alone and in combination, for the prevention of colorectal adenomas (seAFOod Polyp Prevention trial): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2?×?2 factorial trial. Lancet. 2018 Dec 15;392(10164):2583-2594. View abstract.
Moussa H, Nguile-Makao M, Robitaille K, et al. Omega-3 Fatty Acids Survey in Men under Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer: from Intake to Prostate Tissue Level. Nutrients. 2019 Jul 16;11(7). pii: E1616. View abstract.
Perez-Cornago A, Huybrechts I, Appleby PN, et al. Intake of individual fatty acids and risk of prostate cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. Int J Cancer. 2020 Jan 1;146(1):44-57. View abstract.
Kuroda K, Otake H, Shinohara M, et al. Effect of rosuvastatin and eicosapentaenoic acid on neoatherosclerosis: the LINK-IT Trial. EuroIntervention. 2019 Dec 20;15(12):e1099-e1106. View abstract.
Morsy S, Khalil SM, Doheim MF, et al. Efficacy of ethyl-EPA as a treatment for Huntington disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Neuropsychiatr. 2019 Aug;31(4):175-185. View abstract.
Rao A, Briskey D, Nalley JO, Ganuza E. Omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) rich extract from the microalga Nannochloropsis decreases cholesterol in healthy individuals: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, three-month supplementation study. Nutrients. 2020;12(6):1869. View abstract.
Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Vellas B, Rizzoli Ret al. Effect of vitamin D supplementation, omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, or a strength-training exercise program on clinical outcomes in older adults: The DO-HEALTH randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2020;324(18):1855-1868. View abstract.
Lam CN, Watt AE, Isenring EA, de van der Schueren MAE, van der Meij BS. The effect of oral omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on muscle maintenance and quality of life in patients with cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Nutr 2021;40(6):3815-3826. View abstract.
Patan MJ, Kennedy DO, Husberg C, et al. Supplementation with oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid, but not in docosahexaenoic acid, improves global cognitive function in healthy, young adults: results from randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 2021;114(3):914-924. View abstract.
Zhang HJ, Gao X, Guo XF, Li KL, Li S, Sinclair AJ, Li D. Effects of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid supplementation on metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis of data from 33 randomized controlled trials. Clin Nutr. 2021;40(7):4538-4550. View abstract.
Tsuchiya Y, Ueda H, Yanagimoto K, Kato A, Ochi E. 4-week eicosapentaenoic acid-rich fish oil supplementation partially protects muscular damage following eccentric contractions. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2021;18(1):18. View abstract.
Supinski GS, Netzel PF, Westgate PM, Schroder EA, Wang L, Callahan LA. A randomized controlled trial to determine whether beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate and/or eicosapentaenoic acid improves diaphragm and quadriceps strength in critically Ill mechanically ventilated patients. Crit Care 2021;25(1):308. View abstract.
Sarris J, Ravindran A, Yatham LN, et al. Clinician guidelines for the treatment of psychiatric disorders with nutraceuticals and phytoceuticals: The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) and Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) Taskforce. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2022;23(6):424-455. View abstract.
Mori T, Murasaki K, Yokoyama Y. Long-term safety and efficacy of MND-2119 (self-emulsifying formulation of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester) in patients with hypertriglyceridemia: Results from a multicenter, 52-week, open-label study. J Clin Lipidol 2022;16(5):737-746. View abstract.
Frangou S, Lewis M, McCrone P. Efficacy of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid in bipolar depression: Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Br J Psychiatry. 2006;188:46-50. View abstract.
Frangou S, Lewis M, Wollard J, Simmons A. Preliminary in vivo evidence of increased N-acetyl-aspartate following eicosapentaenoic acid treatment in patients with bipolar disorder. J Psychopharmacol. 2007;21(4):435-9. View abstract.
Keck PE Jr, Mintz J, McElroy SL, et al. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of ethyl-eicosapentanoate in the treatment of bipolar depression and rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2006;60(9):1020-2. View abstract.