References
Choline
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1949
Zeisel SH. Choline: needed for normal development of memory. J Am Coll Nutr 2000;19:528S-31S. View abstract.
3094
Yates AA, Schlicker SA, Suitor CW. Dietary reference intakes: The new basis for recommendations for calcium and related nutrients, B vitamins, and choline. J Am Diet Assoc 1998;98:699-706. View abstract.
5139
Gilman AG, et al, eds. Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 8th ed. New York, NY: Pergamon Press, 1990.
5160
Grunewald KK, Bailey RS. Commercially marketed supplements for bodybuilding athletes. Sports Med 1993;15:90-103. View abstract.
5161
Sehested P, Lund HI, Kristensen O. Oral choline in cerebellar ataxia. Acta Neurol Scand 1980;62:124-6. View abstract.
5163
Shronts EP. Essential nature of choline with implications for total parenteral nutrition. J Am Diet Assoc 1997;97:639-46. View abstract.
5164
Spector SA, Jackman MR, Sabounjian LA, et al. Effect of choline supplementation on fatigue in trained cyclists. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995;27:668-73. View abstract.
5165
Gupta SK, Gaur SN. A placebo controlled trial of two dosages of LPC antagonist-choline in the management of bronchial asthma. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 1997;39:149-56. View abstract.
5166
Gaur SN, Agarwal G, Gupta SK. Use of LPC antagonist, choline, in the management of bronchial asthma. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci 1997;39:107-13. View abstract.
5170
Mohs RC, Davis KL, Tinklenberg JR, Hollister LE. Choline chloride effects on memory in the elderly. Neurobiol Aging 1980;1:21-5. View abstract.
5171
Davis KL, Berger PA. Pharmacological investigations of the cholinergic imbalance hypotheses of movement disorders and psychosis. Biol Psychiatry 1978;13:23-49. View abstract.
5172
Davis KL, Hollister LE, Berger PA. Choline chloride in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 1979;136:1581-4. View abstract.
5173
Lawrence CM, Millac P, Stout GS, Ward JW. The use of choline chloride in ataxic disorders. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1980;43:452-4. View abstract.
5174
Buchman AL, Dubin MD, Moukarzel AA, et al. Choline deficiency: a cause of hepatic steatosis during parenteral nutrition that can be reversed with intravenous choline supplementation. Hepatology 1995;22:1399-403. View abstract.
5175
Tan J, Bluml S, Hoang T, et al. Lack of effect of oral choline supplement on the concentrations of choline metabolites in human brain. Magn Reson Med 1998;39:1005-10. View abstract.
5178
Albright CD, Liu R, Mar MH, et al. Diet, apoptosis, and carcinogenesis. Adv Exp Med Biol 1997;422:97-107. View abstract.
5179
Yen CL, Mar MH, Zeisel SH. Choline deficiency-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells is associated with diminished membrane phosphatdylcholine and sphingomyelin, accumulation of ceramide and diacylglycerol, and activiation of a caspase. FASEB J 1999;13:135-42.
5180
Zeisel SH. Choline: an important nutrient in brain development, liver function and carcinogenesis. J Am Coll Nutr 1992;11:473-81. View abstract.
13134
Shaw GM, Carmichael SL, Yang W, et al. Periconceptional dietary intake of choline and betaine and neural tube defects in offspring. Am J Epidemiol 2004;160:102-9. View abstract.
14845
Cho E, Willett WC, Colditz GA, et al. Dietary choline and betaine and the risk of distal colorectal adenoma in women. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007;99:1224-31. View abstract.
14846
Ziegler RG, Lim U. One-carbon metabolism, colorectal carcinogenesis, chemoprevention - with caution. J Natl Cancer Inst 2007;99:1214-5. View abstract.
23679
Legg, N. J. Oral choline in cerebellar ataxia. Br.Med.J. 11-18-1978;2(6149):1403-1404. View abstract.
42227
Korzh, E. V. [The efficacy of inhalations of choline chloride in the treatment of patients with chronic dust-induced bronchitis]. Lik.Sprava. 1999;(1):81-85. View abstract.
42229
Warber, J. P., Patton, J. F., Tharion, W. J., Zeisel, S. H., Mello, R. P., Kemnitz, C. P., and Lieberman, H. R. The effects of choline supplementation on physical performance. Int.J.Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2000;10(2):170-181. View abstract.
42230
Buchman, A. L., Jenden, D., Suki, W. N., and Roch, M. Changes in plasma free and phospholipid-bound choline concentrations in chronic hemodialysis patients. J.Ren Nutr. 2000;10(3):133-138. View abstract.
42232
Buchman AL, Sohel M, Brown M, et al. Verbal and visual memory improve after choline supplementation in long-term total parenteral nutrition: a pilot study. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2001;25(1):30-5. View abstract.
42233
Davis, K. L., Berger, P. A., and Hollister, L. E. Letter: Choline for tardive dyskinesia. N.Engl.J.Med. 7-17-1975;293(3):152. View abstract.
42235
Buchman, A. L., Ament, M. E., Sohel, M., Dubin, M., Jenden, D. J., Roch, M., Pownall, H., Farley, W., Awal, M., and Ahn, C. Choline deficiency causes reversible hepatic abnormalities in patients receiving parenteral nutrition: proof of a human choline requirement: a placebo-controlled trial. JPEN J.Parenter.Enteral Nutr. 2001;25(5):260-268. View abstract.
42237
Deuster, P. A., Singh, A., Coll, R., Hyde, D. E., and Becker, W. J. Choline ingestion does not modify physical or cognitive performance. Mil.Med. 2002;167(12):1020-1025. View abstract.
42240
Schmidt, C., Abicht, A., Krampfl, K., Voss, W., Stucka, R., Mildner, G., Petrova, S., Schara, U., Mortier, W., Bufler, J., Huebner, A., and Lochmuller, H. Congenital myasthenic syndrome due to a novel missense mutation in the gene encoding choline acetyltransferase. Neuromuscul.Disord. 2003;13(3):245-251. View abstract.
42245
Davis, K. L., Hollister, L. E., Barchas, J. D., and Berger, P. A. Choline in tardive dyskinesia and Huntington's disease. Life Sci. 11-15-1976;19(10):1507-1515. View abstract.
42246
Growdon, J. H., Cohen, E. L., and Wurtman, R. J. Effects of oral choline administration on serum and CSF choline levels in patients with Huntington's disease. J.Neurochem. 1977;28(1):229-231. View abstract.
42247
Barbeau, A. Emerging treatments: replacement therapy with choline or lecithin in neurological diseases. Can.J.Neurol.Sci. 1978;5(1):157-160. View abstract.
42249
Mandat, T., Wilk, A., Manowiec, R., Koziarski, A., Zielinski, G., and Podgorski, J. K. [Preliminary evaluation of risk and effectiveness of early choline alphoscerate treatment in craniocerebral injury]. Neurol.Neurochir.Pol. 2003;37(6):1231-1238. View abstract.
42252
Das, S., Gupta, K., Gupta, A., and Gaur, S. N. Comparison of the efficacy of inhaled budesonide and oral choline in patients with allergic rhinitis. Saudi.Med.J. 2005;26(3):421-424. View abstract.
42253
Sachan, D. S., Hongu, N., and Johnsen, M. Decreasing oxidative stress with choline and carnitine in women. J.Am.Coll.Nutr. 2005;24(3):172-176. View abstract.
42261
Are patients with cirrhosis choline deficient? Nutr.Rev. 1990;48(10):383-385. View abstract.
42262
Chawla, R. K., Wolf, D. C., Kutner, M. H., and Bonkovsky, H. L. Choline may be an essential nutrient in malnourished patients with cirrhosis. Gastroenterology 1989;97(6):1514-1520. View abstract.
42263
Gelenberg, A. J., Wojcik, J., Falk, W. E., Bellinghausen, B., and Joseph, A. B. CDP-choline for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia: a small negative series. Compr.Psychiatry 1989;30(1):1-4. View abstract.
42264
Chhabra, S. K., Wadehra, N. R., Gaur, S. N., Joshi, A. P., and Agrawal, K. P. Prophylactic treatment of bronchial asthma with theophylline, disodium cromoglycate and choline--a clinical, physiological and biochemical assessment. Indian J.Chest Dis.Allied Sci. 1987;29(2):65-76. View abstract.
42265
Livingstone, I. R. and Mastaglia, F. L. Choline chloride in the treatment of ataxia. Br.Med.J. 10-13-1979;2(6195):939. View abstract.
42267
Gelenberg, A. J. Choline and lecithin for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia [proceedings]. Psychopharmacol.Bull. 1979;15(2):74-75. View abstract.
42268
Mohs, R. C., Davis, K. L., Tinklenberg, J. R., Hollister, L. E., Yesavage, J. A., and Kopell, B. S. Choline chloride treatment of memory deficits in the elderly. Am.J.Psychiatry 1979;136(10):1275-1277. View abstract.
42269
Davis, K. L., Hollister, L. E., Vento, A. L., and Simonton, S. Choline chloride in animal models of tardive dyskinesia. Life Sci. 5-15-1978;22(19):1699-1707. View abstract.
42270
Tamminga, C., Smith, R. C., Chang, S., Haraszti, J. S., and Davis, J. M. Depression associated with oral choline. Lancet 10-23-1976;2(7991):905. View abstract.
42271
Nasrallah, H. A., Dunner, F. J., Smith, R. E., McCalley-Whitters, M., and Sherman, A. D. Variable clinical response to choline in tardive dyskinesia. Psychol.Med. 1984;14(3):697-700. View abstract.
42273
Saito, T. [Choline antagonists and antacids for the treatment of peptic ulcer]. Nippon Rinsho 1984;42(1):158-162. View abstract.
42275
Wood, J. L. and Allison, R. G. Effects of consumption of choline and lecithin on neurological and cardiovascular systems. Fed.Proc. 1982;41(14):3015-3021. View abstract.
42276
Domino, E. F., Lipper, S., Landau, S. G., and Domino, S. E. Levels of red blood cell choline after discontinuation of lithium therapy. Am.J.Psychiatry 1982;139(5):681-682. View abstract.
42277
Wurtman, R. J., Hirsch, M. J., and Growdon, J. H. Lecithin consumption raises serum-free-choline levels. Lancet 7-9-1977;2(8028):68-69. View abstract.
42278
Chuaqui, P. and Levy, R. Fluctuations of free choline levels in plasma of Alzheimer patients receiving lecithin: preliminary observations. Br.J.Psychiatry 1982;140:464-469. View abstract.
42279
Boyd, W. D., Graham-White, J., Blackwood, G., Glen, I., and McQueen, J. Clinical effects of choline in Alzheimer senile dementia. Lancet 10-1-1977;2(8040):711. View abstract.
42281
Thal, L. J., Rosen, W., Sharpless, N. S., and Crystal, H. Choline chloride fails to improve cognition of Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol.Aging 1981;2(3):205-208. View abstract.
42282
Davis, K. L., Mohs, R. C., Tinklenberg, J. R., Hollister, L. E., Pfefferbaum, A., and Kopell, B. S. Cholinomimetics and memory. The effect of choline chloride. Arch.Neurol. 1980;37(1):49-52. View abstract.
42283
Zeisel, S. H., Epstein, M. F., and Wurtman, R. J. Elevated choline concentration in neonatal plasma. Life Sci. 5-26-1980;26(21):1827-1831. View abstract.
42284
Fovall, P., Dysken, M. W., Lazarus, L. W., Davis, J. M., Kahn, R. L., Jope, R., Finkel, S., and Rattan, P. Choline bitartrate treatment of Alzheimer-type dementias. Commun.Psychopharmacol. 1980;4(2):141-145. View abstract.
42285
Growdon, J. H. and Gelenberg, A. J. Choline and lecithin administration to patients with tardive dyskinesia. Trans.Am.Neurol.Assoc. 1978;103:95-99. View abstract.
42287
Ghoshal, A. K. and Farber, E. Liver biochemical pathology of choline deficiency and of methyl group deficiency: a new orientation and assessment. Histol.Histopathol. 1995;10(2):457-462. View abstract.
42288
Etienne, P., Gauthier, S., Johnson, G., Collier, B., Mendis, T., Dastoor, D., Cole, M., and Muller, H. F. Clinical effects of choline in Alzheimer's disease. Lancet 3-4-1978;1(8062):508-509. View abstract.
42291
Smith, C. M., Swash, M., Exton-Smith, A. N., Phillips, M. J., Overstall, P. W., Piper, M. E., and Bailey, M. R. Choline therapy in Alzheimer's disease. Lancet 8-5-1978;2(8084):318. View abstract.
42293
Levy, R. Choline in Alzheimers disease. Lancet 10-28-1978;2(8096):944-945. View abstract.
42296
von Allworden, H. N., Horn, S., Kahl, J., and Feldheim, W. The influence of lecithin on plasma choline concentrations in triathletes and adolescent runners during exercise. Eur.J.Appl.Physiol Occup.Physiol 1993;67(1):87-91. View abstract.
42297
da Costa, K. A., Cochary, E.F., Blusztain, J.K., Garner, S.C., Ziesel, S.H. Accumulation of 1,2-sn-diradylglycerol with increased membrane-associated protein kinase C may be the mechanism for spontaneous hepatocarcinogenesis in choline-deficient rats. J Biol Chem. 1993;268(3):2100-2105. View abstract.
42299
Stoll, A. L., Sachs, G. S., Cohen, B. M., Lafer, B., Christensen, J. D., and Renshaw, P. F. Choline in the treatment of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder: clinical and neurochemical findings in lithium-treated patients. Biol.Psychiatry 9-1-1996;40(5):382-388. View abstract.
42302
Blusztajn, J. K. Choline, a vital amine. Science 8-7-1998;281(5378):794-795. View abstract.
42304
Sijens, P. E., Oudkerk, M., van Dijk, P., Levendag, P. C., and Vecht, C. J. 1H MR spectroscopy monitoring of changes in choline peak area and line shape after Gd-contrast administration. Magn Reson.Imaging 1998;16(10):1273-1280. View abstract.
42305
Albright, C. D. Tsai A. Y. Friedrich C. B. Mar M. H. and Zeisel S. H. Choline availability alters embryonic development of the hippocampus and septum in the rat. Brain Res Dev Brain Res 1999;113:13-20.
42307
Galeone F, Salvadorini F Guarguaglini M Saba P. Effect of intravenous injection of CDP-choline, S-adenosyl-methionine and citiolone in subjects with hyperlipemia. Artery. 1979;5(2):157-169.
42309
Lars G.Forssell, Roland Eklöf Bengt Winblad and Lars Forssell. Early Stages of Late Onset Alzheimer's Disease. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 1989;79(S121):27-42.
42310
Morrison, L. M. and W. F. Gonzales. Choline in coronary atherosclerosis. Amer.Heart J. 1950;39:729.
42311
Narkewicz MR, Caldwell S Jones G. Cysteine supplementation and reduction of total parenteral nutrition-induced hepatic lipid accumulation in the weanling rat. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1995;21(1):18-24.
42312
Christie, J. G. Blackburn 1. M. Glen A. I. M. Zeisel S. Shering A. & Yates C. M. Effects of choline and lecithin on CSF choline levels and on cognitive functioning in patients with presenile dementia of the Alzheimer type. Nutrition and the brain 1979;5
42314
Mohs RC, Davis KL. Choline chloride effects on memory: correlation with the effects of physostigmine. Psychiatry Res. 1980;2(2):149-156.
42319
Sandage BW, Sabounjian LA White R. Wurtman RJ. Choline citrate may enhance athletic performance. Physiologist 1992;35:236a.
42320
Conlay LA, Wurtman RJ Blusztajn JK Covielia IJ Maher TJ Evoniuk GE. Decreased plasma choline concentrations in marathon runners (letter). NEM 1986;175:892.
42321
Spector SA, Jackman MR Sabounjian LA Sakas C Landers DM Willis VVT. Effect of choline supplementation on fatigue in trained cyclists. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1995;27(5):669-673.
42323
de la Huerga, J. and Popper H. Urinary excretion of choline metabolites following choline administration in normals and patients with hepatobiliary diseases. J.Clin.Invest. 1951;30:463.
42324
Harris CM, Dysken MW Fovall P Davis JM. Effect of lecithin on memory in normal adults. Am J Psychiatry. 1983;140(8):1010-1012.
42325
Shinozuka H, Katyal SL Perera MI. Choline deficiency and chemical carcinogenesis. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1986;206:253-267.
42326
Lu L, Ni J Zhou T Xu W Fenech M Wang X. Choline and/or Folic Acid Deficiency is Associated with Genomic Damage and Cell Death in Human Lymphocytes In Vitro. Nutr Cancer. 2012;64(3):481-487.
42327
Schrader WP, Fan DP. Synthesis of cross-linked peptidoglycan attached to previously formed cell wall by toluene-treated cells of Bacillus megaterium. J Biol Chem. 8-10-1974;249(15):4815-4818.
42328
Tammenmaa Irina, McGrath John Sailas Eila ES Soares-Weiser Karla. Cholinergic medication for neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012;2002(3)
59281
Gelenberg, A. J., Doller-Wojcik, J. C., and Growdon, J. H. Choline and lecithin in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia: preliminary results from a pilot study. Am J Psychiatry 1979;136(6):772-776. View abstract.
91231
Sidhu N, Davies S, Nadarajah A, et al. Oral choline supplementation for postoperative pain. Br J Anaesth 2013;111(2):249-55. View abstract .
92108
Knott V, de la Salle S, Choueiry J, et al. Neurocognitive effects of acute choline supplementation in low, medium and high performer healthy volunteers. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2015;131:119-129. View abstract.
92109
Guerrerio AL, Colvin RM, Schwartz AK, et al. Choline intake in a large cohort of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;95(4):892-900. View abstract.
92110
Guerrerio AL, Mattis L, Conner KG, et al. Oral choline supplementation in children with intestinal failure. JPGN. 2011;53(1):115-19. View abstract.
92111
Wozniak JR, Fuglestad AJ, Eckerle JK, et al. Choline supplementation in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders has high feasibility and tolerability. Nutr Res. 2013;33(11):897-904. View abstract.
92112
Wozniak JR, Fuglestad AJ, Eckerle JK, et al. Choline supplementation in children with fetal alcohol disorders: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102(5): 1113-25. View abstract.
92114
Ross RG, Hunter SK, McCarthy L, et al. Perinatal choline effects on neonatal pathophysiology related to later schizophrenia risk. Am J Psychiatry. 2013;170(3):290-8. View abstract.
94648
Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Choline. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B-6, Vitamin B-12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press; 1998:390-422.
94654
Boeke CE, Gillman MW, Hughes MD, et al. Choline intake during pregnancy and child cognition at age 7 years. Am J Epidemiol 2013;177(12):1338-47. View abstract.
94655
Signore C, Ueland PM, Troendle J, Mills JL. Choline concentrations in human maternal and cord blood and intelligence at 5 y of age. Am J Clin Nutr 2008;87(4):896-902. View abstract.
94656
Villamor E, Rifas-Shiman SL, Gillman MW, Oken E. Maternal intake of methyl-donor nutrients and child cognition at 3 years of age. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2012;26(4):328-35. View abstract.
94657
Wu BT, Dyer RA, King DJ, Richardson KJ, Innis SM. Early second trimester maternal plasma choline and betaine are related to measures of early cognitive development in term infants. PLoS One 2012;7(8):e43448. View abstract.
97388
Meyer KA, Shea JW. Dietary choline and betaine and risk of CVD: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Nutrients 2017;9(7). pii: E711. View abstract.
97389
Nguyen TT, Risbud RD, Mattson SN, Chambers CD, Thomas JD. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of choline supplementation in school-aged children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Am J Clin Nutr 2016;104(6):1683-92. View abstract.
97390
Sun S, Li X, Ren A, et al. Choline and betaine consumption lowers cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. Sci Rep 2016;6:35547. View abstract.
103567
Virtanen JK, Tuomainen TP, Voutilainen S. Dietary intake of choline and phosphatidylcholine and risk of type 2 diabetes in men: The Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Eur J Nutr. 2020;59(8):3857-3861. View abstract.
103568
Smolders L, de Wit NJW, Balvers MGJ, Obeid R, Vissers MMM, Esser D. Natural choline from egg yolk phospholipids is more efficiently absorbed compared with choline bitartrate; Outcomes of a randomized trial in healthy adults. Nutrients. 2019;11(11):2758. View abstract.
103569
Rashvand S, Mobasseri M, Tarighat-Esfanjani A. Effects of choline and magnesium concurrent supplementation on coagulation and lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a pilot clinical trial. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2020;194(2):328-335. View abstract.
103570
Dibaba DT, Johnson KC, Kucharska-Newton AM, Meyer K, Zeisel SH, Bidulescu A. The association of dietary choline and betaine with the risk of type 2 diabetes: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Diabetes Care. 2020;43(11):2840-2846. View abstract.
103571
Gabis LV, Ben-Hur R, Shefer S, Jokel A, Shalom DB. Improvement of language in children with autism with combined donepezil and choline treatment. J Mol Neurosci. 2019;69(2):224-234. View abstract.
105731
DiBella M, Thomas MS, Alyousef H, et al. Choline Intake as Supplement or as a Component of Eggs Increases Plasma Choline and Reduces Interleukin-6 without Modifying Plasma Cholesterol in Participants with Metabolic Syndrome. Nutrients. 2020 Oct 13;12(10):3120. View abstract.
105732
Liu ZY, Zhang DM, Yishake D, Luo Y, Fang AP, Zhu HL. Dietary choline, rather than betaine intake, is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma mortality. Food Funct. 2020 Sep 23;11(9):7866-7877. View abstract.
109098
Golzarand M, Bahadoran Z, Mirmiran P, Azizi F. Dietary choline and betaine intake and risk of hypertension development: a 7.4-year follow-up. Food Funct 2021;12(9):4072-4078. View abstract.
109099
Warton FL, Molteno CD, Warton CMR, et al. Maternal choline supplementation mitigates alcohol exposure effects on neonatal brain volumes. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021;45(9):1762-1774. View abstract.
109100
Liu L, Qiao S, Zhuang L, et al. Choline intake correlates with cognitive performance among elder adults in the United States. Behav Neurol 2021;2021:2962245. View abstract.
109101
Hunter SK, Hoffman MC, D'Alessandro A, et al. Maternal prenatal choline and inflammation effects on 4-year-olds' performance on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-IV. J Psychiatr Res 2021;141:50-56. View abstract.
109102
Liu W, Ren C, Zhang W, Liu G, Lu P. Association between dietary choline intake and diabetic retinopathy: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2008. Curr Eye Res 2022;47(2):269-276. View abstract.
109103
Böckmann KA, Franz AR, Minarski M, et al. Differential metabolism of choline supplements in adult volunteers. Eur J Nutr 2022;61(1):219-230. View abstract.
109104
Golzarand M, Mirmiran P, Azizi F. Association between dietary choline and betaine intake and 10.6-year cardiovascular disease in adults. Nutr J 2022;21(1):1. View abstract.
109105
Bahnfleth CL, Strupp BJ, Caudill MA, Canfield RL. Prenatal choline supplementation improves child sustained attention: A 7-year follow-up of a randomized controlled feeding trial. FASEB J 2022;36(1):e22054. View abstract.
109106
Li J, Kang X, Zhang L, Luo J, Zhang D. Dietary choline is inversely associated with depressive symptoms: A cross-sectional study of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011 to 2018. J Affect Disord 2022;301:23-29. View abstract.
109107
Klatt KC, McDougall MQ, Malysheva OV, et al. Prenatal choline supplementation improves biomarkers of maternal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status among pregnant participants consuming supplemental DHA: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2022;116(3):820-832. View abstract.